Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a newly emerging zoonosis that causes severe disease in both animals and humans. The natural host of the virus are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus.
NiV was first identified during an outbreak of disease that took place in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia in 1998. On this occasion, pigs were the intermediate hosts. However, in subsequent NiV outbreaks, there were no intermediate hosts. In Bangladesh in 2004, humans became infected with NiV as a result of consuming date palm sap that had been contaminated by infected fruit bats. Human-to-human transmission has also been documented, including in a hospital setting in IndiaNiV infection in humans has a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory syndrome and fatal encephalitis. NiV is also capable of causing disease in pigs and other domestic animals. There is no vaccine for either humans or animals. The primary treatment for human cases is intensive supportive care. It can also be spread between people ,often between family and caregivers of people who are affected.
When a person is infected with the nipah virus ,they experience encephalitis or the inflammation of brain. It typically takes five to 14 days for the symptoms to start appear.
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There is no cure for this virus. Instead people who are infected are treated with supportive care, which includes making sure the person stays hydrated and treating any nausea or vomiting issue.
People can take step to prevent NIPAH by avoiding exposure to sick pigs and bats and not drinking raw date palm sap which can be contaminated by the excretion from infected bats.